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Trends in Autonomous Driving & Battery Management

Automotive industry moving quickly towards Autonomous Driving and adoption of EV technology. Some of the advanced technology concepts could potentially benefit companies to reduce the development time and time to Market.

V2X communication (Vehicle to Everything):

Among various technologies in ADAS using sensors, Radar, Lidar, Camera. These sensors are unable to provide 360-degree vision of the surrounding of the car when there could be impediments, e.g., blind bend corner or buildings or large vehicles blocking the field of view V2X communications ability to wirelessly exchange information about the speed and position of surrounding vehicles shows great promise in helping to avoid crashes, ease traffic congestion, and improve the environment. This allows road users to alert one another to critical driving situations and so help prevent accidents.

There are few V2X technologies in development using DSRC, C-V2X technologies. There are few other technologies like LoRa, Wi-Fi and LTE or 5G emerging technology to develop V2X technologies. In V2X communication, X represent Vehicle, Network, Infrastructure, Pedestrian

•    Vehicle to Vehicle
•    Vehicle to Network
•    Vehicle to Infrastructure
•    Vehicle to Pedestrian

V2X technology is a great way to bring down the number and reduce the number of road accidents. With V2X, things as small as an electronic emergency brake light can help to warn the nearby drivers that a particular vehicle is starting to brake. Also, V2X can easily and effectively identify road hazards or any vulnerable pedestrians. Smart cars can brake much before the human drivers react and also notify the vehicles behind them to lower their speed. All this can improve road safety significantly

Secured Communication

Until now, the V2X cybersecurity certification scope was very narrow and limited, including only compliance with regional standards for the Hardware Secure Module (HSM) which is used to securely store the private keys and certificates for signing outgoing messages. That’s all. There was no certification at all for other security-critical system components.

The regulation also requires an analysis if unknown software bugs can lead to exploitable vulnerabilities. Because V2X by nature deals with safety, system design must account for risks that other communication systems are less exposed to.  Today V2X alerts the driver of potential road dangers; in the future V2X will influence automatic vehicle braking. Potentially exploitable V2X vulnerabilities may therefore impose high risk. On the other hand, other communication interfaces, such as cellular network, are not related at all to vehicle braking. For this reason, the risk severity of potentially exploitable Telematics vulnerabilities is much lower than that of V2X.

Developing a light weight cybersecurity concept using Software Defined Perimeter and Wire-Guard VPN tunneling to achieve maximum security in communication.

V2X cybersecurity

 

Triggered by the technological advancements and the demand created by the awareness regarding the protection of the environment, electric vehicles (“EVs”) has become a centre of attention for the automotive industry. Also, the emission regulations contributed significantly to this change and the players that have been active in the manufacturing of traditional battery-operated vehicles are increasingly moving towards manufacturing EVs. Such transformation is forcing manufacturers to abandon their long-standing investments on Batteries and Battery management System.

Battery Management System

During the charging and discharging of the battery, a Battery Management System, or BMS, monitors and adjusts internal operating parameters such as temperature, voltage, and current. To enhance battery safety and performance, the BMS calculates the battery’s SoC (State of Charge) and SoH (State of Health).

It prevents the battery pack from being overcharged or discharged. This prevents unexpected mishaps [explosions] by keeping the charge level within the maximum and minimum permitted capacities. As a result, a BMS is extremely important equipment for ensuring the battery’s and user’s safety.

SoC

In simple words (The State of Charge) is your fuel gauge for battery-operated vehicles or E-vehicle. It is the real-time or actual capacity of the battery compared to its full capacity. Just like your cellphone battery, it is measured in terms of percentage (%). E.g., 100% SoC means the battery is fully charged to its capacity, and 0% SoC means it’s fully discharged

Estimation of the SOC of a battery is not an easy task depending. It definitely varied based on the battery type and the type of application that is using the battery. However, there has been good research work and development in past years to improve the estimation of SOC accuracy. Accuracy in SOC estimation is one of the important tasks for battery management systems, which will help improve system reliability and performance and improve the battery life cycle.

Cell Voltage and Maximizing Battery Lifetime

To determine the overall health of a battery pack, it is necessary to monitor the cell voltage of each cell. To guarantee optimal functioning and battery life, all cells have an operating voltage window within which charging, and discharging should take place. When a lithium-ion battery is used in an application, the operating voltage is generally between 2.5V and 4.2V.

 The voltage range is determined by the chemical. Operating the battery outside of the voltage range drastically decreases the cell’s lifespan and may render it unusable. A battery pack is made up of cells linked in series and parallel.

Cell Balancing

Several cells grouped together to power a device, you need to do some sought of balancing. The reason is that battery cells are fragile things that die or get damaged if they are charged or discharged too much. For your cells that have different SoC and you start using them, their voltage starts dropping until the cell with the least amount of energy stored in it reaches the discharge cut off voltage of the cell.

At that point, if the energy keeps flowing through the cell, it gets damaged beyond repair. Now, if you attempt to charge this group of cells to the correct combined voltage, the healthy cells get overcharged and thus get damaged as they will take the energy that the already dead cell is no longer able to store. Imbalanced lithium-ion cells die the first time you try to use them. This is why balancing is absolutely required.
 
Developed with new innovative algorithm using Database Driven to develop accurate SOC estimation, Malfunctioning cell identification, Rapid charging and prolong battery energy by effective load optimization, sharing and shedding is possible

Cell Balancing

 

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