When we talk about HR, Job analysis is one of the indispensable duties that HR has to carry out before the recruitment process. The job analysis process can be understood as a way to collect detailed information about a job being done. It is used in drafting a Job Description which is the very first step in recruitment. Job analysis involves determining the responsibilities, duties, skills and benefits of a job. It takes into consideration job specification.
There are various methods to complete the job analysis process:-
1.Critical incident technique
It is a procedure in which we focus on behaviours. Behaviors that are either excellent or unacceptable are noted and written down for the analysis. Job analysis report through this method focus on the following elements:-
- Situations that led to such type of incident
- How employee behaved in that situation
- Result of the behavior and what impact it left
This method leads us to note down what employees should and shouldn’t do, which may help a new employee in being conscious of what is unacceptable
This method solely focuses on the task that an employee has to carry out within his job. A detailed report is prepared about the task, its frequency of occurrence, its weightage, and difficulties or barriers involved in the task completion. HR may take a survey to carry out this method. Or they can take interviews with the employee and the manager as well. Other ways opted to carry out this technique is observation and taking regular notes for the end report.
But you must be wondering how a task is permeated?
- The task here is characterized as follows:-
- Tasks are those which have a starting and an ending point
- Task’s results are measurable
- Tasks require skills, knowledge, and Attitude
- Tasks can be observed by a second person and are performed in a short period
3. Functional Job Analysis
This takes a broader picture by focusing on qualifications, abilities, demand, and expectations for the job. It is a qualitative form of assessment, which allows the HR professional to analyze every part of a job and prepare a detailed report for the recruitment purpose. This job analysis method helps HR find answers to questions that are commonly asked in an interview “About Strength and Weakness of a person”. FJA helps in identifying the strength used for performing the job. Conducting FJA is pretty simple, for FJA a meeting is held in which a FJA expert and the employee are required. Here, others from the management team are not needed as they perform their own duty and may not know in deep about other’s job. Sometimes a manager can be consulted at the end. Few Questions that can be asked are:-
- Knowledge required for performing the job
- Skills required
- Job specifications(Task
- Should and shouldn’t do
Above are the 3 methods that will reduce the onus of an HR person who will step into 2021 with these 3 methods of job analysis.